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GARGAS: Water and the Aquarium Page 9
Tank Water WalMart Fayetteville, Arkansas
Conductivity: 1760 μS x .64 = 1126.40 mgl/ ppm (TDS)
TDS: (1760) x (.64) = 1125.40 mg/l or ppm
Osmotic pressure: lbs per square inch
Total Hardness 100 mg/l ppm
Calcium 80 ppm (as CAC0 Calcium Carbonate) x .4 to get calcium ion = 32 ppm
3
Magnesium 20 ppm (as CAC0 Calcium Carbonate) x .24 to get magnesium ion = 4.8 ppm
3
Alkalinity 40 ppm (as CAC0 Calcium Carbonate) x .61 to get Bicarbonate ion = 24.40 ppm
3
Chloride 424 ppm as Chloride = 424 ppm
Sulfate 4 ppm as Sulfate = 10 ppm
Nitrate No3 10 ppm = 10 ppm
Sodium Na+ can only be measure with major equipment such as atomic adsorption
or Mass Spectrometer however we can get an educated guess by multiplying the chloride
ion Cl X .65 to get an guesstimate of the Sodium so in this case the amount of Sodium

would be:
Chloride: 424 x .65 = Sodium Sodium = 275.60 ppm
780.8 ppm
We just dissected the aquarium water now add up all the results that are underlined
and see how close we get to the TDS . The Total comes to 780.80 ppm
The approximate TDS is 1126.40
After adding the ions we got  780.80 subtracting these two numbers like above:
Unknown Difference 345.60
The difference maybe other minerals besides Sodium that have been added
to the water by someone!!
Not only have there been additives added to this water but there is no longer an ionic
balance which is just as important in the osmoregulation of fish besides the Osmotic
Pressure.